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Mr. Reynolds' English Classes

Southgate Anderson High School

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7 Wonders Notes

The 7 Wonders:

Lighthouse of Alexandria

Temple (Statue) of Zeus at Olympia

The Great Pyramid

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

Temple of Artemis

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

Colossus of Rhodes



Seven Wonders of the Ancient World:

Mankind’s attempt to worship

Why Seven wonders?

-Chosen by Philo of Byzanthia at request of Alexander the Great

-400 references to 7 in the Bible

-Seventh Heaven

-Cabala/Minorah has 7 candles

-7 deadly sins

-7 known planets at the time



The Great Pyramid

-In Cairo, Egypt on Giza Plain

-Only remaining wonder; about 5000 years old

-100,000 workers

-30 years to complete

-Stone was quarried from 600 miles away

-Points of pyramid are compass points

Pharonic Egypt

-Immortality most important

-Afterlife necessities include:

-Intact body

-Book of the Dead

-Ka-Spiritual Double



Hanging Gardens of Babylon

-Modern day Iraq

-In Fertile Crescent called Mesopotamia

-Gardens commissioned by King Nebuchadnezzar to please his wife who was homesick for her more tropical homeland of Media in about 600 BC

-Babylon built entirely of brick

-Kiln made brick still exists

The Gardens

-Babylon had 8 gates (Eye of Needle)

-Alexander loved Babylon- went there often-died there

-Towers called Ziggurats-Tower of Babel

-Garden’s walls were 22’ thick

-Watered by a pulley system

-Terraces were planted with rich greenery



The Statue of Zeus at Olympia

-Olympia center of Zeus worship for about 1000 years

-Mecca for Greeks-pilgrimages

-Olympic games started to honor the god

-First recorded date was 776BC

-Some say Herakles started the games to honor his dad

-First one included Pelops’ challenge

The Statue

-3 stories tall

-Sculpted by Phidias at place selected by Zeus

-Lightning bolt struck ground in 5th century BC

-Statue was housed in a great temple

-Zeus is seated on his throne

-Body is ivory

-Robe and sandals are gold

-Nike in one hand-scepter in other

-Statue remained for 850 years-moved to Constantinople where it was burned for the jewels



The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

-Modern day Turkey

-Oldest city in Asia Minor

-A polis- (community) people voted and worshipped

-Considered the sacred earth of Artemis

-Ursa Major-Divine Tomboy Action

-Site of fertility Artemis statue’s torso covered with breasts

-Statue was gift from Crisius had Hermes at the base

The Temple

-Huge. Many columns. Built 350BC

-Center of worship for Artemis

-Search began in 1863- John Wood, English

-First remains found on New Year’s Eve 1869

-60’ marble columns lined a marble walkway that led to temple from over a mile away

-Also found a 30,000 seat theatre

-Heraclitis: partially destroyed by goths in AD 262

-Burned in AD356 by Herastratus- to be famous



Tomb of Mausollos

-Governor of Halicarnassus

-Wife, Artemesia, commissioned building of tomb to show her love when he died in 353BC

-Housed statues of Artemesia and Mausollos

-Had a chariot and 4 horses on top

-Sarcophagus was alabaster and contained ashes. Some were ground into a perfume and drunk by Artemesia

Tomb of Mausollos

-First building in ancient days to combine two types of architecture: Greek and Egyptian

-Tomb was 140’ tall with area of 440’

-Many of the statuary in the tomb was stolen

-Tomb dismantled to build a fortress lasted 1500 years

-Modern day Turkey-theatre still there

-English term mausoleum comes from his name



Collossus of Rhodes

-Least amount known about this wonder

-Bronze statue of Helios shading his eyes

-Took 12 years to build. Lasted only 25 years

-Rhodes is Greek Island

-Home of famous schools of philosophy

-"Rhodes Scholars”- Julius Caesar, Cicero, Bill Clinton


-Town is centered around theatre and Temple of Apollo

-Collossus, 110’ tall, sat at entrance to harbor built around 250BC

-Tumbled by earthquake in 224BC

-Filled with dirt and rocks for support

-Model for our Statue of Liberty, named Liberty Guarding the World at 152’

-Oracle forbade the raising of the statue

-Our word: collossal



Pharos of Alexandria

-Alexander built the city and is buried there

-Cleopatra also died there

-Pharos was a lighthouse along the Nile 3rd century BC

-At 460’. It was the tallest building in ancient times

-Used as a lighthouse for about 1700 years

-Huge beaten bronze mirrors reflect fires

-Can be seen for 35 miles-Honor to Zeus

-Remnants found in fort built by Sultans


-Pharo means lighthouse in Greek

-In French, it is fare

-In Spanish, it is faro




-These monuments were built by men to glorify the gods and worship or pay homage to men

-Remember, there were no power tools in those days

-But, wait, why wasn’t The Great Wall of China on of the wonders?

Site updated on March 19, 2018